MQTT based Smart Waste Collection Management using Raspberry Pi
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The Internet of Things (IoT), as expected infrastructure for envisioned concept of Smart building, brings new possibilities for the building management. IoT vision introduces promising and economical solutions for massive data collection and its analysis which can be applied in many domains and so make them operating more efficiently.
The Internet of Things (IoT), as expected infrastructure for envisioned concept of Smart building, brings new possibilities for the building management. IoT vision introduces promising and economical solutions for massive data collection and its analysis which can be applied in many domains and so make them operating more efficiently. In this paper, we are discussing one of the most challenging issues – waste-collection, waste is not collected in the correct time and which leads to the environment damage and more health issues. To optimize the logistic procedure of waste collection, we are implementing a IOT project where first automation of the waste like dry or wet will be done, second update of the dustbin (how much filled) will be send to the server through the MQTT(Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) protocol using Wide Area Network(WAN) with a cloud. In this system whenever the dustbin is filled with 80% it will automatically send the SMS (using Twilio API) and also will update on the server automatically. The presented solution provides calculation of garbage-truck collection more accurate with a Light Weight protocol i.e. MQTT. As an output, we provide a set of simulations focused on mentioned area.
MQTT makes the work more easy and fast when compared to the Wi-Fi. The pressure sensor senses the presence of dry and wet and after that accordingly it will split the garbage according into the dry and wet bin. Ultrasonic sensor is used to know the status of the garbage filled or not and accordingly it will update the garbage collection management about the bin status.
In the existing system garbage is collected by corporation by weekly once or by 2 days once. Though the garbage strinks and overflows the garbage bin and spread over the roads and pollutes the environment. The smell will be heavy and produces air pollution and spreads disease. The street dogs and animals eats the waste food and speads over the area and creates dirty environment and also a new system of garbage collection is introduce using IEEE 802.11 standared which depends on the network speed and have issues with accuracy of update and collection of garbage in time.
In this proposed system, waste is managed in two different waste accordingly i.e. dry and wet. In this system the speed of the network does not matter as MQTT is a very light weight protocol which will work with low internet speed also with a high speed transfer of data. Automation i.e. machine to machine communication without any involvement of the human.
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
- In this project MCP3008 is used, so connect 3.3v pin from raspberry to all sensors
- Similarly MCP3008 and all sensor’s ground pins should be grounded
- Now connect sensor’s output pins to each channels of MCP3008 (ex: Weight sensor to channel 0, Moisture sensor to channel 1d of MCP3008)
- Connect power supply for Raspberry pi
- Plug the HDMI cable in Raspberry pi from the monitor using VGA to HDMI converter cable
- Connect USB Mouse and USB keyboard to the Raspberry pi
- Collect the ultrasonic senor and accordingly send the status to the Garbage Monitoring System.
- Raspberry Pi
- IR Sensor
- Weight Sensor
- Moisture Sensor
- Ultrasonic sensor
- MCP3008(ADC IC)
- SD card
- Raspbian Jessie
- MQTT Protocol
- Language – Linux
The above figure displays the Publisher side i.e. our dustbin where the status will be published to the subscriber with the help of cloud (broker).
Above figure shows the Client side where the client will get the status of how much the dust bin has been filled, here extension in chrome i.e. MQTT LENS is used.
Accordingly if it is more than 80% it will automatically give alert to collect the garbage from that location.
According to this system, garbage collection system becomes more autonomous with quick transmission of data by using MQTT protocol. Main advantage in MQTT protocol is, even when clients are not in the node network, data will be sent, whenever client is connected with that node, they can able to see the data which has been sent already. So that they can able to monitor the waste collection accordingly. At the same time it is more secure as the publisher and the subscriber only know the instance and topic in order to publish/subscribe the message.
 “Smart garbage monitoring and clearance system using internet of things” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Technologies and Management for Computing, Communication, Controls, Energy and Materials (ICSTM).
 “Location Based Garbage Management System with IoT for Smart City” in 2018 13th International Conference on Computer Science & Education (ICCSE).
 S. Lokuliyana, J. A. D.C.A. Jayakody, L. Rupasinghe, S. Kandawala, “IGOE IoT framework for waste collection optimization”, 2017 6th National Conference on Technology and Management (NCTM), pp. 12-16, 2017.