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Brain Computer Interface

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This post describes what is brain computer interface,how it works,and what type of sensor it used and what applications we can develop from BCI

What is Brain computer interface

Brain computer interface or mind machine interface is a computer-based system that acquires brain signals, analyzes them, and translates them into commands that are relayed to an output device to carry out a desired action .

Why BCI is important ?

Brain computer interface is the only human machine interface which do not need a muscle activity,all other human interface needs a muscle activity so it could be used for parallyzed people to communicate with the world.

What is EEG

EEG( Electroencephalography ) recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain

Who invented EEG

German physiologist and psychiatrist Hans Berger (1873–1941) recorded the first human EEG in 1924

How Brain computer interface works

A BCI generally consists of three main components:

  • A Signal-acquisition module (Electrode,Filtering and Amplifier)
  • A Signal-processing module(ASIC ,DSP)
  • A Control module ( Microcontroller &Driver)

What are the other types of electrical activity genertaed from the human body ?

The other type of electrical activity (bio signal) that can be continually measured and monitored.

  • ECG(Electrocardiogram)
  • EEG(Electroencephalogram)
  • EMG(Electromyogram)
  • EOG(Electrooculogram)
  • Galvanic skin response
  • MEG(Magneto encephalography)

What are the types of BCI

  • Active BCI: β€œAn active BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from brain activity which is directly consciously controlled by the user, independently from external events, for controlling an application.”
  • Reactive BCI: β€œA reactive BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from brain activity arising in reaction to external stimulation, which is indirectly modulated by the user for controlling an application.”
  • Passive BCI: β€œA passive BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from arbitrary brain activity without the purpose of voluntary control, for enriching a human-computer interaction with implicit information.”

What are the types of Electrodes used in BCI

  • Invasive
    • Involves attaching electrodes directly to the brain tissue – The patient’s brain gradually adapts its signals to be sent through the electrodes
  • Non Invasive
    • Involves putting electrodes on the scalp of the patient, and taking readings