The Project works with the latest GSM and GPS Technology. The Projects Consists of GPS and GSM Modem. The Project works with the latest GSM and GPS Technology. This Project consists of GPS and GSM Modem “Vehicle Tracking Service“ means an Electronics device that reports its location by using Global Positioning system (GPS), data receive from GPS satellites. This device is installed in car/vehicle with antenna and tracking the vehicle.GPS controlled and handled by computer system. The device consists of a micro-controller interfaced with a GPS and a GPRS module. The GPS module receives the information of the vehicle and passes it to the controller. The controller extracts the required information and makes a packet out of it that consists of geographical data and other information. And latitude and longitude information sent as an SMS periodically.
GPS Module is attached to the vehicle, which is going to be traced. Using this Project we have to send the position of GPS Module (vehicle) to the control unit. The GPS receiver receives signal from the satellite. This signal shows the Latitudes and Longitudes of the GPS receiver. This signal is given to the micro controller. Output from Micro controller is given to the GSM module. GSM module, which is kept at the receiver side, will read this message. This message contains longitude and latitude and receiving time and date. Using this information we can easily find the position of GPS receiver, or simply the position of the vehicle. GPS receiver, which is fixed in transport, will collect the NMEA data from GPS Satellite, which incorporates Latitude, Longitude, time of receiving data, and date. ARM processor will receive these data through serial communication from GPS receiver.
These data are used to identify the position of that transport on the earth. Collected information is given to ARM processor and will be displayed on display board of that vehicle. So ARM processor will send the exact position of that vehicle to GSM module.
This GSM module will send this information to another GSM module, which is kept at the receiver side, where the position of the Transport is needed to be displayed. This information will be sent to ARM processor, which is kept at the receiver side, and position will be displayed at the required place.
GSM has been the backbone of the phenomenal success in mobile telecom over the last decade. Now, at the dawn of the era of true broadband services, GSM continues to evolve to meet new demands. GSM is an open, non-proprietary system that is constantly evolving. One of its great strengths is the international roaming capability. This gives consumers seamless and same standardized same number contact ability in more than 212 countries. This has been a vital driver in growth, with around 300 million GSM subscribers currently in Europe and Asia. In the Americas, today's 7 million subscribers are set to grow rapidly, with market potential of 500 million in population, due to the introduction of GSM 800, which allows operators using the 800 MHz band to have access to GSM technology too. GSM satellite roaming has extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available. GSM differs from first generation wireless systems in that it uses digital technology and time division multiple access transmission methods. Voice is digitally encoded via a unique encoder, which emulates the characteristics of human speech. This method of transmission permits a very efficient data rate/information content ratio.
Cellular mobile communication is based on the concept of frequency reuse. That is, the limited spectrum allocated to the service is partitioned into, for example, N non-overlapping channel sets, which are then assigned in a regular repeated pattern to a hexagonal cell grid. The hexagon is just a convenient idealization that approximates the shape of a circle (the constant signal level contour from an omni directional antenna placed at the center) but forms a grid with no gaps or overlaps. The choice of N is dependent on many tradeoffs involving the local propagation environment, traffic distribution, and costs. The propagation environment determines the interference received from neighboring co-channel cells, which in turn governs the reuse distance, that is, the distance allowed between co-channel cells (cells using the same set of frequency channels).
The cell size determination is usually based on the local traffic distribution and demand. The more the concentration of traffic demand in the area, the smaller the cell has to be sized in order to avail the frequency set to a smaller number of roaming subscribers and thus limit the call blocking probability within the cell. On the other hand, the smaller the cell is sized, the more equipment will be needed in the system as each cell requires the necessary transceiver and switching equipment, known as the base station subsystem (BSS), through which the mobile users access the network over radio links. The degree to which the allocated frequency spectrum is reused over the cellular service area, however, determines the spectrum efficiency in cellular systems. That means the smaller the cell size, and the smaller the number of cells in the reuse geometry, the higher will be the spectrum usage efficiency.
Since digital modulation systems can operate with a smaller signal to noise (i.e., signal to interference) ratio for the same service quality, they, in one respect, would allow smaller reuse distance and thus provide higher spectrum efficiency. This is one advantage the digital cellular provides over the older analogue cellular radio communication systems. It is worth mentioning that the digital systems have commonly used sectored cells with 120-degree or smaller directional antennas to further lower the effective reuse distance. This allows a smaller number of cells in the reuse pattern and makes a larger fraction of the total frequency spectrum available within each cell. Currently, research is being done on implementing other enhancements such as the use of dynamic channel assignment strategies for raising the spectrum efficiency in certain cases, such as high uneven traffic distribution over cell
The GPS is a system of positioning by satellite to give an accurate position anywhere on the planet within a hundred meters, by day or night. The visible part is a small electronic case, which indicates precisely -and in a split second- the exact place, height, speed and time.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a network of 24 Navistar satellite orbiting Earth at 11,000 miles. Originally established by the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) at a cost of about US$13 billion, access to GPS is free to all users, including those in other countries. The system’s positioning and timing data are used for a variety of applications, including air, land and sea navigation, vehicle and vessel tracking, surveying and mapping, and asset and natural resource management. With military accuracy restrictions partially lifted in March 1996 and fully lifted in May 2000, GPS can now pinpoint the location of objects as small as a penny anywhere on the earth’s surface.
Uses of GPS technology
GPS technology has matured into a resource that goes far beyond its original design goals. These days people from a plethora of professions are using GPS in ways that make their work more productive, safer, and sometimes even easier. There are five main uses of GPS today:
The aims of this project is to design and implement a GPS based Land Surveying system, and find out time, latitude, and longitude of the boundary points and thereby take the survey of the land.
The GPS Land Surveying System includes 24 satellites that provide location awareness by transmitting longitude, latitude, altitude, and time information to GPS receiving and processing devices worldwide. Here the system will track the position of boundary points of a particular land.The micro controller circuitry receive and process the data coming from the GPS receiver. The micro controller will send the needed information to plot the graph of the land to the PC
Vehicle location using GSM / GPS Home Automation is undeniably a resource which can make a home environment automated. People can control their electrical devices via these Home Automation devices and set up the controlling actions in the computer. We think this product have high potential for marketing in the future.
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