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User Manual ARM7-LPC2148 Development Kit

Specifications

 

MCU

NXP's ARM7 LPC2148 TDMI MCU



Memory

512K Flash – Program Memory

32K+8K RAM – Data Memory



Clock

12MHz crystal for maximum(5xPLL = 60MHz CPU clock) | 32 KHz RTC crystal



On-Board Peripherals

  • 8 Nos. Point LEDs
  • 8 Nos. Digital Input(Slide Switch)
  • 4x4 Matrix Keypad
  • 2X16 Character LCD with back Light
  • 4 Nos. 7-Segment Display (I2C)
  • 2 Nos. Analog Input (Potentiometer)
  • Temperature Sensor
  • Stepper Motor Interface
  • 2 Nos. of SPDT Relay
  • RTC with Batter-Backup
  • 2 Nos. UART(RS232)
  • USB 2.0 device interface
  • Buzzer (Alarm)
  • PS/2 (keyboard interface)
  • Digital/Analog Output
  • Interrupts Study, Reset Button



Power

  • 9-12V, AC/DC- Adaptors,Power form USB (+5V) (+3.3V, 800mA)



Connectors

  • JTAG (Programming/ Debugging)
  • D-SUB Connector (Serial Port, ISP)
  • 40 – PIN Expansion Connector
  • Ext Analog Input Connector



General Block Diagram





LPC2148 Processor Features

 

  • 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package.
  • 8 kB to 40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 32 kB to 512 kB of on-chip flash memory. 128-bit wide interface/accelerator enables high-speed 60 MHz operation.
  • In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot loader software. Single flash sector/full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 ms.
  • USB 2.0 Full-speed compliant device controller with 2 kB of endpoint RAM. In addition, the LPC2146/48 provides 8 kB of on-chip RAM accessible to USB by DMA.
  • One or two (LPC2141/42 vs. LPC2144/46/48) 10-bit ADCs provide a total of 6/14 analog inputs, with conversion times as low as 2.44 μs per channel.
  • Single 10-bit DAC provides variable analog output (LPC2142/44/46/48 only).
  • Two 32-bit timers/external event counters (with four capture and four compare channels each), PWM unit (six outputs) and watchdog.
  • Low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with independent power and 32 kHz clock input. Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550), two Fast I2C-bus (400 kbit/s), SPI and SSP with buffering and variable data length capabilities.
  • Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) with configurable priorities and vector addresses.
  • Up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in a tiny LQFP64 package.
  • Up to 21 external interrupt pins available.
  • 60MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling time of 100μs.
  • On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal from 1 MHz to 25 MHz.
  • Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down.
  • Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions as well as peripheral clock scaling for additional power optimization.
  • Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external interrupt or BOD.
  • Single power supply chip with POR and BOD circuits:
  • CPU operating voltage range of 3.0 V to 3.6 V (3.3 V ± 10 %) with 5 V tolerant I/O pads.



Jumper & Connector Details

 

Stepper / Relay

JP8

Internal Supply (+5V) External Supply(+5V)

Analog I/P (P0.29)

JP4

On-Board Analog Input(+3.3V)

External Analog Input-1 select

Analog I/P (P0.30)

JP5

On-Board Analog Input(+3.3V)

External Analog Input-2 select

Buzzer (P0.7)

JP1

Enable Buzzer                     

Disable Buzzer

JTAG

JP6

Enable JTAG                        

Disable Power JTAG

      USB Voltage Read

JP13

 

 

Enable/Disable USB Voltage Read

LED

J4

Enable LEDs,  Port (P1.16 – P1.23)

Disable LEDs.

 



Connector Details

 

40-Pin Expansion Connector





JTAG Connector





Power Supply

The external power can be AC or DC, with a voltage between (9V/12V,1A output) at 230V AC input. The ARM board produces +5V using an LM7805 voltage regulator, which provides supply to the peripherals. LM1117 Fixed +3.3V positive regulator used for processor & processor related peripherals. USB socket meant for power supply and USB communication, user can select either USB or Ext power supply through JP14. Separate On/Off Switch (SW24) for controlling power to the board.

 

+5V USB/EXT

SW1

       

Power +5V (EXT through Adaptor)

Power +5V (USB)

 



Flash Programming Utility

 

NXP (Philips)

NXP Semiconductors produce a range of Microcontrollers that feature both on-chip Flash memory and the ability to be reprogrammed using In-System Programming technology.



Program/Execution Mode

 

ISP Programming

J11

       

 

Program Mode (LED on)   

Execution Mode

UART-0 / ISP PGM

P1 (DB-9 Male)

 



On-board Peripherals

 

The Development kit comes with many interfacing options

  • 8-Nos. of Point LED’s (Digital Outputs)
  • 8-Nos. of Digital Inputs (slide switch)
  • 2 Lines X 16 Character LCD Display
  • I2C Enabled 4 Digit Seven-segment display
  • 128x64 Graphical LCD Display
  • 4 X 4 Matrix keypad
  • Stepper Motor Interface
  • 2 Nos. Relay Interface
  • Two UART for serial port communication through PC
  • Serial EEPROM
  • On-chip Real Time Clock with battery backup
  • PS/2 Keyboard interface(Optional)
  • Temperature Sensor
  • Buzzer(Alarm Interface)
  • Traffic Light Module(Optional)



Light Emitting Diodes

  • Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are the most commonly used components, usually for displaying pin’s digital states.
  • The ARM214X Kit has 8 nos., of Point LEDs, connected with port pins (P1.16 to P1.23), to make port pins high LED will glow.

 

 

Point LEDs

LPC2148 Lines

LED Selection

DIGITAL OUTPUTS

LD1

P1.16

LD2

P1.17

LD3

P1.18

LD4

P1.19

LD5

P1.20

LD6

P1.21

LD7

P1.22

LD8

P1.23

 



Digital Inputs

 

  • This is another simple interface, of 8-Nos. of slide switch, mainly used to give an input to the port lines, and for some control applications also.
  • The ARM214X Kit, slide switches (SW20 to SW27) is connected with port pins (P1.24 to P1.31), user can give logical inputs ‘LOW’.
  • The switches are connected to +3.3V, in order to detect a switch state, pull-down resistor should be used.

 

 

Slide Switch

LPC2148 Lines

Input Logic Selection

DIGITAL INPUTS

SW20

P1.24

 

SW21

P1.25

SW22

P1.26

SW23

P1.27

SW24

P1.28

SW25

P1.29

SW26

P1.30

SW27

P1.31

 



LCD 2x16 IN 4-BIT MODE

The ARM214X Kit, have 2x16 character LCD. 7 pins are needed to create 4-bit interface; 4 data bits (P0.19 – P0.22, D4-D7), address bit (RS-P0.16), read/write bit (R/W-P0.17) and control signal (E-P0.18). The LCD controller is a standard KS0070B or equivalent, which is a very well-known interface for smaller character based LCDs.

Figure below illustrate the LCD part of the design and which pins are used for the interface. The LCD is powered from the 5V power supply enabled by switch SW28.

 

 

LCD MODULE

LPC2148 LINES

2x16 LCD Selection

CONTROL

RS

P0.16

RW

P0.17

E

P0.18

DATA LINES

D0-D3

NC

D4

P0.19

D5

P0.20

D6

P0.21

D7

P0.22

 

Make switch SW28 to ‘LCD’ label marking position

 



I2C Seven Segment Display

In ARM214X Kit, 4 nos. of common anode seven segment displays are controlled by I2C Enabled drivers. I2C Lines serial clock SCL (P0.2), serial data SDA (P0.3) connected to the I2C based 7-segment display driver. The digit select lines are (MX1, MX2) controlled by the driver chip. The 7-segmend display is powered from the 5V power supply enabled by switch SW28.

 

7-SEG Display

7-SEG Driver

LPC2148 LINES

7-SEG PWR Selection

SCL

P0.2

 

SDA

P0.3

 

Make switch SW28 to ‘7SEG’ label marking position

 



128x64 GLCD Graphical LCD

 

The ARM214X Kit is the GLCD. 14 pins are needed to create 8-bit interface; 8 data bits (P0.8 – P0.15, DB0-DB7), two chip select line P0.0(CS1) and P0.1(CS2), address bit (R/S-P0.4), read/write bit (R/W-P0.5) and control signal (E-P0.6) and Reset (RST-P0.7). The GLCD controller is a standard S6B0108 or equivalent, which is a very well-known interface for Graphical based LCDs.

Figure below illustrate the GLCD part of the design and which pins are used for the interface. The GLCD is powered from the 5V power supply enabled by switch SW28.

 

 

GLCD

LPC2148 LINES

128x64 GLCD Selection

CONTROL L LINES

CS1

P0.0

             

CS2

P0.1

RS

P0.4

R/W

P0.5

E

P0.6

LCD – DATA LINES

DB0

P0.8

DB1

P0.9

DB2

P0.10

DB3

P0.11

DB4

P0.12

DB5

P0.13

DB6

P0.14

DB7

P0.15

RST

P0.7

Make switch SW28 and SW30  to                                     ‘GLCD’ label marking position

       
 



Pin Details of GLCD





4x4 Matrix keypad

Keypads arranged by matrix format, each row and column section pulled by high or low by selection J5, all row lines(P1.24 – P1.27) and column lines(P1.28 to P1.31) connected directly by the port pins.

 

 

4x4 Matrix Lines

LPC2148 Lines

4x4 Matrix Keypad

ROW

ROW-0

P1.24

     

ROW-1

P1.25

ROW-2

P1.26

ROW-4

P1.27

COLUMN

COLUMN-0

P1.28

COLUMN-1

P1.29

COLUMN-2

P1.30

COLUMN-3

P1.31

 



Note:

While using Keypad ensure slide switches (SW20-SW27) to off position. (The same lines used for both slide switches and matrix keypads)



Stepper Motor

The ULN2803A is a high-voltage, high-current Darlington transistor array. The device consists of eight NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage outputs with common-cathode clamp diodes for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of each Darlington pair, 500 mA.

ULN2803 is used as a driver for port I/O lines, drivers output connected to stepper motor, connector provided for external power supply if needed.

 

 

Stepper Motor(5V)

LPC2148 Lines

Stepper Motor PWR Select

STEPPER MOTOR

COIL-A

P1.16

COIL-B

P1.17

COIL-C

P1.18

COIL-D

P1.19

Make  switch SW28 to SM/RL label

marking position.

 



For Motor/relay section obtain power from on-board (internal) or external supply through jumper JP8.

Relay Interface

ULN2803 is used as a driver for port I/O lines, drivers output connected to relay modules. Connector provided for external power supply if needed.

Relay Module  :

Port P1 pins (Realy1 – P1.20) and Relay2-P1.21) for relay module, make port pins to high, relay will activated

 

 

RELAY SPDT

LPC2148 Lines

RELAY Power Select

RELAY Modules

Relay-1

P1.20

Relay-2

P1.21

Note      : Relay selection make switch SW28 to SM/RL label marking position

 

 

For Motor/relay section obtain power from on-board (internal) or external supply through jumper JP8.



RS-232 Communication

 

  • RS-232 communication enables point-to-point data transfer. It is commonly used in data acquisition applications, for the transfer of data between the microcontroller and a PC.
  • The voltage levels of a microcontroller and PC are not directly compatible with those of RS-232, a level transition buffer such as MAX3232 be used.

 

 

UART DB-9 Connector

LPC2148

Processor Lines

Serial Port Section

UART0(P1)

ISP PGM

TXD-0

P0.0

         

RXD-0

P0.1

UART1

(P2)

TXD-1

P0.8

RXD-1

P0.9

 



Serial EEPROM

The AT24C01A/02/04/08/16 provides 1024/2048/4096/8192/16384 bits of serial electrically erasable and programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) organized as 128/256/512/1024/2048 words of 8 bits each. The device is optimized for use in many industrial and commercial applications where low-power and low-voltage operation are essential.



Features of AT24Cxx

  • Internally Organized 128 x 8 (1K), 256 x 8 (2K), 512 x 8 (4K)
  • 2-wire Serial Interface
  • Bi-directional Data Transfer Protocol
  • 100 kHz (1.8V, 2.5V, 2.7V) and 400 kHz (5V) Compatibility
  • Write Protect Pin for Hardware Data Protection
  • 8-byte Page (1K, 2K), 16-byte Page (4K, 8K, 16K) Write Modes    – Data Retention: 100 Years.

 

 

I2C EEPROM

LPC2148 Lines

Serial EEPROM

AT 24xx

SCL

SCL1 -  (P0.11)

SDA

SDA1 -  (P0.14) 

 



Note :

Ensure while using serial EEPROM, GLCD module should be removed from the socket.



Real Time Clock (DS1307)

The Real Time Clock (RTC) is a set of counters for measuring time when system power is on, and optionally when it is off. It uses little power in Power-down mode. On the LPC2148, the RTC can be clocked by a separate 32.768 KHz oscillator, or by a programmable prescale divider based on the VPB clock. Also, the RTC is powered by its own power supply pin, VBAT, which can be connected to a battery or to the same 3.3 V supply used by the rest of the device.

Features

  • Measures the passage of time to maintain a calendar and clock.
  • Ultra Low Power design to support battery powered systems.
  • Provides Seconds, Minutes, Hours, Day of Month, Month, Year, Day of Week, Day of Year.
  • Dedicated 32 kHz oscillator or programmable pre-scalar from VPB clock.
  • Dedicated power supply pin can be connected to a battery or to the main 3.3 V.

 

 

I2C RTC

LPC2148 Lines

Real Time Clock

DS1307

SCL

SCL1 -  (P0.11)

SDA

SDA1 -  (P0.14) 

 



On-Chip ADC

Basic clocking for the A/D converters is provided by the VPB clock. A programmable divider is included in each converter, to scale this clock to the 4.5 MHz (max) clock needed by the successive approximation process. A fully accurate conversion requires 11 of these clocks.

In ARM214X Kit for testing on-board analog input, port lines P0.29 and P0.30 connected through 10K potentiometer selected by jumpers. The signals P0.29 and P0.30 can be used as general purpose pins if the analog inputs are not used and in this case the analog voltages can easily be removed by removing the two jumpers on JP4 and JP5.

Features

  • 10 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter (two in LPC2148).
  • Input multiplexing among 8 pins.
  • Power-down mode | Measurement range 0 to 3 V.
  • 10 bit conversion time ≥ 2.44 μs.
  • Burst conversion mode for single or multiple inputs.
  • Optional conversion on transition on input pin or Timer Match signal.
  • Global Start command for both converters (LPC2148 only).

 

On-Chip ADC

ADC Inputs

LPC2148

ADC Select

 

POT (R16)

AD0.2

P0.29

 

 

POT (R17)

AD0.3

P0.30

 
 



On-Chip Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)

DAC Features

  • 10 bit digital to analog converter
  • Resistor string architecture
  • Buffered output
  • Power-down mode
  • Selectable speed vs. power

DAC Pin Description





Operation

Bits 19:18 of the PINSEL1 register, control whether the DAC is enabled and controlling the state of pin P0.25/AD0.4/AOUT. When these bits are 10, the DAC is powered on and active.

The settling times noted in the description of the BIAS bit are valid for a capacitance load on the AOUT pin not exceeding 100pF. A load impedance value greater than that value will cause settling time longer than the specified time.

In LPC2148 , DAC(P0.25) output terminated at connector JP12.ARM2148 Kit

 

On-Chip DAC

DAC Output

LPC2148

JP12

Aout

P0.25

 



Temperature Sensor-LM35

The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling.

The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¾°C at room temperature and ±¼°C over a full -55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. The LM35 is rated to operate over a -55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a -40° to +110°C range (-10° with improved accuracy).

Features

 

  • Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
  • Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
  • 0.5°C accuracy guarantee-able (at +25°C)
  • Rated for full -55° to +150°C range
  • Operates from 4 to 30 volts.

ARM2148 Kit

In LPC2148 , LM35 Temp sensor connected at P0.28 (AD0.1)

 

 

Temp Sensor

LPC2148 Lines

Temperature Sensor

LM35

Temp

Output

P0.28

           
 



Interrupts

The Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) takes 32 interrupt request inputs and programmably assigns them into 3 categories, FIQ, vectored IRQ, and non-vectored IRQ. The programmable assignment scheme means that priorities of interrupts from the various peripherals can be dynamically assigned and adjusted.

Features

  • ARM PrimeCell™ Vectored Interrupt Controller
  • 32 interrupt request inputs
  • 16 vectored IRQ interrupts
  • 16 priority levels dynamically assigned to interrupt requests
  • Software interrupt generation

ARM72148 Kit

In LPC2148 two external interrupts lines are terminated at (EXINT1-P0.14) and (EXINT2-P0.15).

 

 

Interrupts

LPC2148 Lines

Interrupts

Tactile Switch

 

 

 

 

DS1307

SW2 – (INT1)

P0.14

                  

SW3 – (INT2)

P0.15

 



Buzzer

A small piezoelectric buzzer on the ARM214X Kit, by pulling pin P0.7 low, current will flow through the buzzer and a relatively sharp, single-tone frequency will be heard.

The alternative PWM feature of pin P0.7 (the PWM2 signal) can be used to modulate the buzzer to oscillate around different frequencies. It’s not the pulse width feature that is used to change the frequency. Only the volume of the sound will be changed by alternating the pulse width. Instead, it’s possible to change the frequency of the PWM signal, and this will also change the frequency of with the buzzer oscillate.

The buzzer can be disconnected by removing jumper JP1, and this is also the default position for this jumper since the buzzer sound can be quite annoying if always left on.

 

Buzzer

Buzzer

LPC2148

Buzzer Selection

 

LS1

I/P

P0.7

 



Traffic Light Controller

Traffic light controller section consists of 12 Nos. point leds are arranged by 4Lanes. Each lane has Go(Green), Listen(Yellow) and Stop(Red) LED is being placed. Each LED has provided for current limiting resistor to limit the current flows to the LEDs.

 

LAN Direction

LPC2148 Lines

LED’s

Traffic Light Controller

NORTH

P0.4

D11-Go

   

P0.5

D12-Listen

P0.6

D13-Stop

WEST

P0.7

D14-Go

P0.8

D15-Listen

P0.9

D16-Stop

SOUTH

P0.10

D17-Go

P0.11

D18-Listen

P0.12

D19-Stop

EAST

P0.13

D20-Go

P0.14

D21-Listen

P0.15

D22-Stop

Note      : Make SW30 to “Traffic” label marking position

 



PS/2 Interface

The ARM214X Kit includes a PS/2 port and the standard 6-pin mini-DIN connector, labeled U11 on the board. User can connect PS/2 Devices like keyboard, mouse to the ARM7 Kit. PS/2’s DATA (P8) and CLK (P10) lines connected to LPC2148 I/O Lines.

 

6PIN MINI Connector

PS/2

LPC2148

I/O Lines

    

U11

PS/2

DATA

P1.17

CLK

P1.16

 





Both a PC mouse and keyboard use the two-wire PS/2 serial bus to communicate with a host device, the ARM7-2148 in this case. The PS/2 bus includes both clock and data. Both a mouse and keyboard drive the bus with identical signal timings and both use 11-bit words that include a start, stop and odd parity bit. However, the data packets are organized differently for a mouse and keyboard. Furthermore, the keyboard interface allows bidirectional data transfers so the host device can illuminate state LEDs on the Keyboard.

The PS/2 bus timing appears as shown in above figure. The clock and data signals are only driven when data transfers occur; otherwise they are held in the idle state at logic High. The timing defines signal requirements for mouse-to-host communications and bidirectional keyboard communications. The attached keyboard or mouse writes a bit on the data line when the clock signal is High, and the host reads the data line when the clock signal is Low.



Keyboard

The keyboard uses open-collector drivers so that either the keyboard or the host can drive the two-wire bus. If the host never sends data to the keyboard, then the host can use simple input pins. A ps/2-style keyboard uses scan codes to communicate key press data nearly all keyboards in use today are ps/2 style. Each key has a single, unique scan code that is sent whenever the corresponding key is pressed.

The scan codes for most keys appear in below figure. If the key is pressed and held, the keyboard repeatedly sends the scan code every 100 ms or so. When a key is released, the keyboard sends an “f0” key-up code, followed by the scan code of the released key. the keyboard sends the same scan code, regardless if a key has different shift and non-shift characters and regardless whether the shift key is pressed or not. The host determines which character is intended. Some keys, called extended keys, send an “e0” ahead of the scan code and furthermore, they might send more than one scan code. When an extended key is released, an “e0 f0” key-up code is sent, followed by the scan code.





The host can also send commands and data to the keyboard. Below figure provides a short list of some often-used

Commands

 

Command

Description

ED

Turn on/off Num Lock, Caps Lock, and Scroll Lock LEDs

EE

Echo. Upon receiving an echo command, the keyboard replies with the same scan code “EE”.

F3

Set scan code repeat rate. The keyboard acknowledges receipt of an “F3” by returning an “FA”, after which the host sends a second byte to set the repeat rate.

FE

Resend. Upon receiving a resend command, the keyboard resends the last scan code sent

FF

Reset. Resets the keyboard

 



The keyboard sends commands or data to the host only when both the data and clock lines are High, the Idle state, Because the host is the bus master, the keyboard checks whether the host is sending data before driving the bus. The clock line can be used as a clear to send signal. If the host pulls the clock line Low, the keyboard must not send any data until the clock is released. The keyboard sends data to the host in 11-bit words that contain a ‘0’ start bit, followed by eight bits of scan code (LSB first), followed by an odd parity bit and terminated with a ‘1’ stop bit.



Board Layout



Getting Started with ARM Kit Programming

Note : Ensure slide switch SW30 near GLCD , in “GLCD” label Position while in programming mode.

Step 1: Select Device LPC218





Step 2: Read Device Signature





Step 3: Locate Hex File and Start Programming





Refer the below related articles:

ARM7 Lab Experiments

Appendix