Local-Prediction Based Difference Expansion Reversible Watermarking


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A novel method for generic visible watermarking with a capability of lossless image recovery is proposed. The method is based on the use of deterministic one-to-one compound mappings of image pixel values for overlaying a variety of visible watermarks of arbitrary sizes on cover images. The compound mappings are proved to be reversible, which allows for lossless recovery of original images from watermarked images. The mappings may be adjusted to yield pixel values close to those of desired visible watermarks. Different types of visible watermarks, including opaque monochrome and translucent full color ones, are embedded as applications of the proposed generic approach. A two-fold monotonically increasing compound mapping is created and proved to yield more distinctive visible watermarks in the watermarked image. Security protection measures by parameter and mapping randomizations have also been proposed to deter attackers from illicit image recoveries. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach are also included.



Digital watermarking methods for images are usually categorized into two types: invisible and visible. The first type aims to embed copyright information imperceptibly into host media such that in cases of copyright infringements, the hidden information can be retrieved to identify the ownership of the protected host. It is important for the watermarked image to be resistant to common image operations to ensure that the hidden information is still retrievable after such alterations. Methods of the second type, on the other hand, yield visible watermarks which are generally clearly visible after common image operations are applied. In addition, visible watermarks convey ownership information directly on the media and can deter attempts of copyright violations.


  • Dual Watermarking Scheme based on DWT-SVD
  • Reversible Watermarking
    • Allow legitimate users to remove the embedded watermark and restore the original content as needed. However, not all reversible watermarking techniques guarantee lossless image recovery, which means that the recovered image is identical to the original, pixel by pixel.
    • Reversible mappings of pixel values or DCT coefficients in the watermark region. 


  • One-to-One Compound Mapping.
  • Reversible One-to-One Compound Mapping.
  • Proposed new approach to lossless visible watermarking
  • Lossless visible watermarking of opaque Monochrome watermarks

                Applications have been described for embedding opaque monochrome watermarks as well as translucent full-color ones. A translucent watermark is clearly visible and visually appealing, thus more appropriate than traditional transparent binary watermarks in terms of advertising effect and copyright declaration.


  •  Embed: opaque monochrome watermarks translucent full-color watermarks
  •  Lossless image recovery
  •  Unlimited watermark size


  • Copyright protection
  • Multimedia Communication


  • MATLAB7 & above version


Local-Prediction Based Difference Expansion Reversible Watermarking

Local-Prediction Based Difference Expansion Reversible Watermarking

Local-Prediction Based Difference Expansion Reversible Watermarking

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