The detection of moving object is fundamental to automated video surveillance, object analysis and recognition. It involves the trajectory of an object over time by locating its position in every frame of the video. In this paper we implement a moving object detection method on FPGA. Detection of moving object is a challenging task. In our implementation of the design we used the background subtraction based method. Background subtraction is a method which detects moving objects from reference background image. Experiment is carried out in MATLAB and on FPGA board.
Extracting background from a video sequence is a required feature for many applications related to video surveillance: vehicle traffic control, intruders’ detection, suspicious objects, etc. The most usual approach to segment moving objects is known as background subtraction, and is considered a key first stage in video surveillance systems. This technique consists of building a reference model which represents the static background of the scene during a certain period of time. Multiple factors and events may affect the scene, making this first background subtraction a non-trivial task: sudden and gradual illumination changes, presence of shadows, or background repetitive movements (such as waving trees), among many others image.
Background subtraction is a computational vision process of extracting foreground objects in a particular scene. A foreground object can be described as an object of attention which helps in reducing the amount of data to be processed as well as provide important information to the task under consideration. Often, the foreground object can be thought of as a coherently moving object in a scene. We must emphasize the word coherent here because if a person is walking in front of moving leaves, the person forms the foreground object while leaves though having motion associated with them are considered background due to its repetitive behavior. In some cases, distance of the moving object also forms a basis for it to be considered a background, e.g if in a scene one person is close to the camera while there is a person far away in background, in this case the nearby person is considered as foreground while the person far away is ignored due to its small size and the lack of information that it provides. Identifying moving objects from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. A common approach is to perform background subtraction, which identifies moving objects from the portion of video frame that differs from the background model.
We have designed and analyzed architecture to perform background subtraction in video sequences capable to detect shadows presented on the scene. This task is considered to be the first stage in computer video surveillance systems and one of the most demanding operations in terms of resources utilization.
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