## EC2306 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB SYLLABUS

### EC2306 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB

- Study of various addressing modes of DSP using simple programming examples
- Implementation of Linear and Circular Convolution
- Sampling of input signal and display
- Waveform generation
- Implementation of FIR filter

### USING MATLAB

- Generation of Signals
- Linear and circular convolution of two sequences
- Sampling and effect of aliasing
- Design of
**FIR filters**
- Design of
**IIR filters**
- Calculation of FFT of a signal
- Decimation by polyphase decomposition.

## STUDY OF VARIOUS ADDRESSING MODES OF DSP USING SIMPLE PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES

## Aim

To Study the various addressing mode of **TMS320C6745 DSP processor.**

## Addressing Modes

The **TMS320C55x DSP** supports three types of addressing modes that enable flexible access to data memory, to memory-mapped registers, to register bits, and to I/O space:

- The
**absolute addressing mode** allows you to reference a location by supplying all or part of an address as a constant in an instruction.
- The
**direct addressing mode** allows you to reference a location using an address offset.
- The
**indirect addressing mode** allows you to reference a location using a pointer.

Each addressing mode provides one or more types of operands. An instruction that supports an addressing-mode operand has one of the following syntax elements listed below.

**Baddr -** When an instruction contains Baddr, that instruction can access one or two bits in an accumulator (AC0–AC3), an auxiliary register (AR0–AR7), or a temporary register (T0–T3). Only the register bit test/set/clear/complement instructions support Baddr. As you write one of these instructions, replace Baddr with a compatible operand.

**Cmem - **When an instruction contains Cmem, that instruction can access a single word (16 bits) of data from data memory. As you write the instruction, replace Cmem with a compatible operand.

**Lmem -** When an instruction contains Lmem, that instruction can access a long word (32 bits) of data from data memory or from a memory-mapped registers. As you write the instruction, replace Lmem with a compatible operand.

**Smem -** When an instruction contains Smem, that instruction can access a single word (16 bits) of data from data memory, from I/O space, or from a memory-mapped register. As you write the instruction, replace Smem with a compatible operand.

**Xmem and Ymem **- When an instruction contains Xmem and Ymem, that instruction can perform two simultaneous 16-bit accesses to data memory. As you write the instruction, replace Xmem and Ymem with compatible operands.

## Absolute Addressing Modes

**k16 absolute **- This mode uses the 7-bit register called DPH (high part of the extended data page register) and a 16-bit unsigned constant to form a 23-bit data-space address. This mode is used to access a memory location or a memory-mapped register.

**k23 absolute **- This mode enables you to specify a full address as a 23-bit unsigned constant. This mode is used to access a memory location or a memory-mapped register.

**I/O absolute **- This mode enables you to specify an I/O address as a 16-bit unsigned constant. This mode is used to access a location in I/O space.

## Direct Addressing Modes

**DP direct **- This mode uses the main data page specified by DPH (high part of the extended data page register) in conjunction with the data page register (DP). This mode is used to access a memory location or a memory-mapped register.

**SP direct **- This mode uses the main data page specified by SPH (high part of the extended stack pointers) in conjunction with the data stack pointer (SP). This mode is used to access stack values in data memory.

**Register-bit direct** - This mode uses an offset to specify a bit address. This mode is used to access one register bit or two adjacent register bits.

**PDP direct** - This mode uses the peripheral data page register (PDP) and an offset to specify an I/O address. This mode is used to access a location in I/O space.

The DP direct and SP direct addressing modes are mutually exclusive. The mode selected depends on the CPL bit in status register ST1_55:

0 DP direct addressing mode

1 SP direct addressing mode

The register-bit and PDP direct addressing modes are independent of the CPL bit.

## Indirect Addressing Modes

You may use these modes for linear addressing or circular addressing.

**AR indirect **- This mode uses one of eight auxiliary registers (AR0–AR7) to point to data. The way the CPU uses the auxiliary register to generate an address depends on whether you are accessing data space (memory or memory-mapped registers), individual register bits,or I/O space.

**Dual AR indirect** - This mode uses the same address-generation process as the AR indirect addressing mode. This mode is used with instructions that access two or more data-memory locations.

**CDP indirect** - This mode uses the coefficient data pointer (CDP) to point to data. The way the CPU uses CDP to generate an address depends on whether you are accessing data space (memory or memory-mapped registers), individual register bits, or I/O space.

**Coefficient indirect** - This mode uses the same address-generation process as the CDP indirect addressing mode. This mode is available to support instructions that can access a coefficient in data memory at the same time they access two other data-memory values using the dual AR indirect addressing mode.

## Circular Addressing

Circular addressing can be used with any of the indirect addressing modes. Each of the eight auxiliary registers (AR0–AR7) and the coefficient data pointer (CDP) can be independently configured to be linearly or circularly modified as they act as pointers to data or to register bits, see Table 3-10. This configuration is done with a bit (ARnLC) in status register ST2_55. To choose circular modification, set the bit.

Each auxiliary register ARn has its own linear/circular configuration bit in ST2_55:

0 Linear addressing

1 Circular addressing

The CDPLC bit in status register ST2_55 configures the DSP to use CDP for linear addressing or circular addressing:

0 Linear addressing

1 Circular addressing

You can use the circular addressing instruction qualifier, .CR, if you want every pointer used by the instruction to be modified circularly, just add .CR to the end of the instruction mnemonic (for example, ADD.CR). The circular addressing instruction qualifier overrides the linear/circular configuration in ST2_55.

## Result

Thus, the various addressing mode of **DSP processor ****TMS320C5505** was studied.

## CONVOLUTION

## LINEAR CONVOLUTION

## Aim

To perform the Linear Convolution of two given discrete sequence in **TMS320C5505 KIT.**

## Requirements

## Theory

Convolution is a formal mathematical operation, just as multiplication, addition, and integration. Addition takes two numbers and produces a third number, while convolution takes two signals and produces a third signal. Convolution is used in the mathematics of many fields, such as probability and statistics. In linear systems, convolution is used to describe the relationship between three signals of interest: the input signal, the impulse response, and the output signal.

If the input and impulse response of a system are x[n] and h[n] respectively, the convolution is given by the expression,

x[n] * h[n] = ε x[k] h[n-k]

Where k ranges between -∞ and ∞ If,

If,

x(n) is a M- point sequence

h(n) is a N – point sequence

then, y(n) is a (M+N-1) – point sequence.

In this equation, x(k), h(n-k) and y(n) represent the input to and output from the system at time n. Here we could see that one of the inputs is shifted in time by a value every time it is multiplied with the other input signal. Linear Convolution is quite often used as a method of implementing filters of various types.

## Procedure

1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

2. In WorkSpace Launcher.

**BROWSE →** Select the project location and make one new folder, **MAKE NEW FOLDER →**Type the Workspace name,** OK → OK.**

### 3. FILE → NEW → CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- Tick use default location.
**→** NEXT
- Project type: C5500.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→** NEXT **→** NEXT.
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none.
**→** FINISH

### 4.FILE **→** NEW **→** SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
- FILE
**→** SAVE.

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6.Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

Note: Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT → PROPERTIES → C/C++ BUILD → BASIC OPTION

- Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK**.

### 8. FILE → NEW → TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505**)**→ SAVE → TARTGET CONFIGURATION →C55XX_0 →BROWSE**, browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file. **→ OPEN →SAVE.**

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project →REBUILD PROJECT.

### 10. Connections

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET → DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET → RUN.

Enter the input

Enter value for m 4
Enter value for n 4
Enter values for i/p x(n):1 1 1 1
Enter Values for i/p h(n):1 1 1 1

output

The Value of output y[0]=1
The Value of output y[1]=2
The Value of output y[2]=3
The Value of output y[3]=4
The Value of output y[4]=3
The Value of output y[5]=2
The Value of output y[6]=1

13. TARGET HALT.

Program

#include "stdio.h"
int x[15],h[15],y[15];
main()
{
int i,j,m,n;
printf("\n Enter value for m");
scanf("%d",&m);
printf("\n Enter value for n");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("Enter values for i/p x(n):\n");
for(i=0;i<m;i++)
scanf("%d",&x[i]);
printf("Enter Values for i/p h(n): \n");
for(i=0;i<n; i++)
scanf("%d",&h[i]);
for(i=m;i<=m+n-1;i++)
x[i]=0;
for(i=n;i<=m+n-1;i++)
h[i]=0;
for(i=0;i<m+n-1;i++)
{
y[i]=0;
for(j=0;j<=i;j++)
{
y[i]=y[i]+(x[j]*h[i-j]);
}
}
for(i=0;i<m+n-1;i++)
printf("\n The Value of output y[%d]=%d",i,y[i]);
printf( "\n***ALL Tests Passed***\n" );
}

## Result

Thus, the** Linear Convolution** of two given discrete sequence has performed and the result is displayed

## CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION

## Aim

To perform the **Circular Convolution** of two given discrete sequence in **TMS320C5505s KIT**

## Requirements

## Theory

The circular convolution, also known as cyclic convolution. A convolution operation that contains a circular shift is called circular convolution. **Circular convolution** of two sequences x1[n] and x2[n] is given by

**x1[n]*x**_{2}[n] = ∑ k x1[k] x2((n-k))N, 0= n =N-1

where k ranges between 0 and N-1

One of the methods to find circular convolution....

In **circular convolution** the length of the output sequence will be equal to length of the input sequence ie. length(y)=length(x) So first perform linear convolution using any of the methods u find easier.

If m is the length of 'x' and n is the length of the 'h' then length of 'yl' from linear conv is m+n-1.

Since length of output from circular conv is m, we will bring the last n-1 terms from 'yl' and add them to first n-1 terms.So the obtained output is circularly convoluted output.

For eg. if x= 1, 2, 3, 4 and h= 2,3,1

lin conv op ie. yl= 2,7,13,19,15,4

bring last two (n-1) terms to first two terms

so circularly convluted op is yc= 17, 11,13,19

## Procedure

### 1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

### 2. In WorkSpace Launcher.

- BROWSE
**→** Select the project location and make one new folder, MAKE NEW FOLDER **→**Type the Workspace name, OK **→**OK.

**3. FILE ****→** NEW **→** CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- Tick use default location.
**→**NEXT
- Project type: C5500.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→**NEXT **→** NEXT.
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none.
** → FINISH**

### 4.FILE → NEW → SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
- FILE
**→** SAVE.

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6. Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

Note: Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT **→** PROPERTIES **→** C/C++ BUILD **→** BASIC OPTION

- a.Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK.**

### 8. FILE **→** NEW **→** TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505**)**→** SAVE **→** TARTGET CONFIGURATION **→**C55XX_0 **→**BROWSE, browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file. **→** OPEN **→**SAVE.

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project →REBUILD PROJECT.

### 10. Connections

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET **→** DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET **→** RUN.

Enter the input
Enter the length of the first sequence 4
Enter the length of the second sequence 4
Enter the first sequence 1 1 1 1
Enter the second sequence 1 1 1 1

output

The circular convolution is 4 4 4 4

13. TARGET HALT.

Program

#include
int m,n,x[30],h[30],y[30],i,j,k,x2[30],a[30];
void main()
{
printf(" Enter the length of the first sequence\n");
scanf("%d",&m);
printf(" Enter the length of the second sequence\n");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf(" Enter the first sequence\n");
for(i=0;i<m;i++)
scanf("%d",&x[i]);
printf(" Enter the second sequence\n");
for(j=0;j<n;j++)
scanf("%d",&h[j]);
if(m-n!=0) /*If length of both sequences are not equal*/
{
if(m>n) /* Pad the smaller sequence with zero*/
{
for(i=n;i<m;i++)
h[i]=0;
n=m;
}
for(i=m;i<n;i++)
x[i]=0;
m=n;
}
y[0]=0;
a[0]=h[0];
for(j=1;j<n;j++) /*folding h(n) to h(-n)*/
a[j]=h[n-j];
/*Circular convolution*/
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
y[0]+=x[i]*a[i];
for(k=1;k<n;k++)
{
y[k]=0;
/*circular shift*/
for(j=1;j<n;j++)
x2[j]=a[j-1];
x2[0]=a[n-1];
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
a[i]=x2[i];
y[k]+=x[i]*x2[i];
}
}
/*displaying the result*/
printf(" The circular convolution is\n");
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%d \t",y[i]);
}

## Result

Thus, the **Circular Convolution** of two given discrete sequence has performed and the result is displayed

## SAMPLING OF INPUT SIGNAL AND DISPLAY

## Aim

To **Generate a sine sample and display it using ****TMS320C5505 DSP KIT.**.

## Requirements

## Theory

The simplest method to generate **Sine wave** is to use Trigonometric Sin function. The Sin function will generate the samples from our specific parameter like sampling frequency, number of samples, input frequency. In this project, generating the correct sample is important. The library function "sin()" does all of the work.

It’s most basic form as a function of time (t) is:

Where:

A, the amplitude, is the peak deviation of the function from its center position.

ω, the angular frequency, specifies how many oscillations occur in a unit time interval, in radians per second

φ, the phase, specifies where in its cycle the oscillation begins at t = 0.

When the phase is non-zero, the entire waveform appears to be shifted in time by the amount f/? seconds. A negative value represents a delay, and a positive value represents an advance.

## Procedure

### 1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

### 2. In Workspace Launcher.

- BROWSE
**→** Select the project location and make one new folder, MAKE NEW FOLDER **→**Type the Workspace name, OK **→** OK.

### 3. FILE **→** NEW **→** CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- tick use default location.
**→NEXT**
- Project type: C5500.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→NEXT → NEXT**.
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none.
**→FINISH**

### 4.FILE → NEW → SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
**FILE → SAVE.**

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6. Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

**Note:** Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT **→** PROPERTIES **→** C/C++ BUILD **→** BASIC OPTION

- Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK.**

### 8. FILE **→ NEW →TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE**

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505**)**→ SAVE → TARTGET CONFIGURATION →C55XX_0 →BROWSE, ** browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file.** →OPEN →SAVE.**

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project **→REBUILD PROJECT**

### 10. Connections :

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET ? DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET ? RUN.(wait to generate samples)

### 13. TARGET ? HALT.

### 14. TOOLS ? GRAPH ? SINGLE TIME

- Acquirstion buffer size : 256
- Index increment : 1
- Start address : value.
- Display data size : 256
**→** Ok.

## Program

Program

#include
#include
#define PI 3.14
short value[500];
void main()
{
const float sampf = 1024000.0;// Sampling frquency is fixed
const int inpf = 4000; // change the input frquency from 1khz to 8khz(1000 to 8000)
float sampt;
double teta;
int i,count,nsamp,value1;
sampt = 1/sampf;
nsamp = sampf/inpf;
printf("\n Sampling Frequency is : %f",sampf);
printf("\n Sampling Time is :%f",sampt);
printf("\n Input Frequency is : %d",inpf);
printf("\n The number of Sample is : %d",nsamp);
for(count=0;count<nsamp;count++)
{
teta = (2 * PI * inpf * sampt * count);
printf("\nteta = %lf",teta);
value[count] = sin(teta)*1024;
printf("\t sin %lf Value is : %d",teta,value[count]);
}
}

## Result

Thus, the **Sine waveform generation** was generated and the sine samples is stored and displayed at graph.

## WAVE GENERATION

## Aim

**To Generate a Square waveform using ****TMS320C5505 DSP KIT.**.

## Requirements

## Theory

The simplest method to generate Sqaure wave is to use High Low concept for pin with delay. Square waves have an interesting mix of practice and theory. In practice, they are extremely simple. In their simplest form, they consist of an alternating sequence of amplitudes; e.g. high/low or 1's and 0's.

The same high / low logic here we implented in experiment. For particular duration the high state is out , then low state is out. Finally square wave is generated and plotted in code composer studio Graph.

## Procedure

### 1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

### 2. In Workspace Launcher.

**BROWSE →** Select the project location and make one new folder, **MAKE NEW FOLDER →**Type the Workspace name, **OK → OK**.

### 3. FILE → NEW → CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- tick use default location. ?NEXT
- Project type: C5500.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→NEXT → NEXT.**
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none.
**→FINISH**

### 4.FILE → NEW → SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
**FILE → SAVE.**

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6. Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

**Note: ** Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT → PROPERTIES → C/C++ BUILD → BASIC OPTION

- Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK.**

### 8. FILE → NEW → TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505**)**→ SAVE → TARTGET CONFIGURATION →C55XX_0 →BROWSE**, browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file. **→ OPEN →SAVE.**

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project **→REBUILD PROJECT.**

### 10. Connections :

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET → DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET → RUN.(wait to generate samples)And it automatically halts the execution.

### 13. TOOLS → GRAPH → SINGLE TIME

- Acquirstion buffer size : 500
- Index increment : 1
- Start address : Square.
- Display data size : 500
**→ Ok**.

## Program

Program

#include
#include
unsigned short Square[500];
void main()
{
int i=0,j=0,k=0;
for(k=0;k<5;k++)
{
for(i=0;i<50;i++)
{
Square[j] = 0x0000FFFF;
j++;
}
for(i=0;i<50;i++)
{
Square[j] = 0x0;
j++;
}
}
}

## Result

Thus, the Square waveform was generated displayed at graph.

## IMPLEMENTATION OF FIR FILTER

## LOW PASS FILTER

## Aim

**To Implement the FIR Low pass filter using ****TMS320C5505 KIT**.

## Requirements

## Theory

In signal processing, a **finite impulse response** (**FIR**) filter is a filter whose impulse response (or response to any finite length input) is of finite duration, because it settles to zero in finite time. This is in contrast to **infinite impulse response** (**IIR**) filters, which may have internal feedback and may continue to respond indefinitely (usually decaying).

The impulse response of an Nth-order discrete-time **FIR filter** (i.e., with a Kronecker delta impulse input) lasts for N + 1 samples, and then settles to zero.

For a discrete time **FIR filter**, the output is a weighted sum of the current and a finite number of previous values of the input. which defines the output sequence y[n] in terms of its input sequence x[n]:

where:

*x[n]* is the input signal,

*y[n]* is the output signal,

*b*_{i} are the filter coefficients, also known as tap weights, that make up the impulse response,

N

is the filter order; an

N

th-order filter has

(N + 1)

terms on the right-hand side. The in these terms are commonly referred to as taps, based on the structure of a tapped delay line that in many implementations or block diagrams provides the delayed inputs to the multiplication operations.

### 1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

### 2. In WorkSpace Launcher.

**BROWSE →** Select the project location and make one new folder, **MAKE NEW FOLDER →**Type the Workspace name, **OK → OK**.

### 3. FILE → NEW → CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- Tick use default location.
**→NEXT**
- Project type: C5500.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→NEXT → NEXT.**
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none. ?FINISH

### 4.FILE → NEW → SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
**FILE → SAVE.**

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6. Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

Note: Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT → PROPERTIES → C/C++ BUILD → BASIC OPTION

- Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK.**

### 8. FILE → NEW → TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505**)**→ SAVE → TARTGET CONFIGURATION →C55XX_0 →BROWSE, ** browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file. **→ OPEN →SAVE.**

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project **→REBUILD PROJECT.**

### 10. Connections :

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET → DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET → RUN.(wait few seconds)

### 13. TARGET ? HALT.

### 14. Output is displayed at Console Window.

## Program

Program

// ideal low pass filter
#include
#include
#define PI 3.14
void main()
{
const int sampf=10000;
const int cutf=1000;
double value,a,b,output;
int nyqf,n,c0;
int *coeff;
coeff = (int *)0xc0001000;
nyqf=sampf/2;
c0=cutf/nyqf;
for(n=-5;n<6;n++)
{
if(n==0)
{
output = 0.5;
}
else
a = (n * PI)/2;
b = n * PI;
value = sin(a);
output = value/b;
Printf ("\n The Fir Low pass filter coefficient : %f",output);
}
}

## Result

Thus, the FIR Low pass filter was Implemented and displayed the results in console window.

## HIGH PASS FILTER

## Aim

**To Implement the FIR High pass filter using ****TMS320C5505 KIT**.

## Requirements

## Theory

In signal processing, a **finite impulse response** (**FIR**) filter is a filter whose impulse response (or response to any finite length input) is of finite duration, because it settles to zero in finite time. This is in contrast to **infinite impulse response** (**IIR**) filters, which may have internal feedback and may continue to respond indefinitely (usually decaying).

The impulse response of an Nth-order discrete-time FIR filter (i.e., with a Kronecker delta impulse input) lasts for N + 1 samples, and then settles to zero.

The output y of a linear time invariant system is determined by convolving its input signal x with its impulse response *b*.

For a discrete time **FIR filter**, the output is a weighted sum of the current and a finite number of previous values of the input. The operation is described by the following equation, which defines the output sequence y[n] in terms of its input sequence x[n]:

where:

*x[n]*is the input signal,

*y[n]*is the output signal,

*b*_{i} are the filter coefficients, also known as tap weights, that make up the impulse response,

N

is the filter order; an

N

th-order filter has

(N + 1)

terms on the right-hand side. The

*x[n-i]*

in these terms are commonly referred to as taps, based on the structure of a tapped delay line that in many implementations or block diagrams provides the delayed inputs to the multiplication operations.

## Procedure

### 1. Open Code Composer Studio v4 .

### 2. In WorkSpace Launcher.

- BROWSE
**→** Select the project location and make one new folder, MAKE NEW FOLDER **→**Type the Workspace name, OK **→** OK.

### 3. FILE → NEW → CCS PROJECT

- Project name: Type your project name.
- Tick use default location.
**→NEXT**
- Project type:
**C5500**.
- Tick Debug And Release.
**→NEXT → NEXT**.
- Output type: Executable.
- Device Variant :
**TMS320C55XX** - **TMS320C5505**.
- Device Endianness : big
- Code Generation Tools: TI v4.3.5.
- Run time support library: automatic.
- Target content: none.
**→FINISH**

### 4.FILE → NEW → SOURCE FILE

- Source file: Type your projectname.c( .c extension is must ).
- Type the program.
**FILE → SAVE.**

### 5. Paste the following board library files in workspace location.

- include folder (contains header files)
- Gel folder (contains gel file)
- Library folder(contains library files)

### 6. Paste the Linker file in the project location.(linker file is available in cd)

Note: Those folders and linker file are availble at cd.

### 7. PROJECT → PROPERTIES → C/C++ BUILD → BASIC OPTION

- Target processor version(--silicon version, -mv) : 5505
**OK.**

### 8. FILE → NEW → TARGET CONFIGURATION FILE

- file name: projectname. ccxml (.ccxml extension is must)
- Connection: Texas Instrument XDS100 v1 USB Emulator.
- Device:
**TMS320C5505**. (Tick the **TMS320C5505 **)à SAVE à TARTGET CONFIGURATION àC55XX_0 àBROWSE, browse the workspace location, open the gel folder and select the GEL file. à OPEN àSAVE.

### 9. In C/C++ Project window, Right click the project →REBUILD PROJECT.

### 10. Connections

- Connect the usb cable, PC to
**TMS320C5505 KIT.**
- Connect the 5v adapter.
- Power on the kit.

### 11. TARGET → DEBUG ACTIVE PROJECT.

### 12. TARGET → RUN.(wait few seconds)

### 13. TARGET → HALT.

### 14. Output is displayed at Console Window.

## Program

// ideal high pass filter coefficients
#include
#include
#define PI 3.14
void main()
{
const int sampf=10000;
const int cutf=1000;
double value,a,b,output,final;
int nyqf,n,c0;
int *coeff;
coeff = (int *)0xc0001000;
nyqf=sampf/2;
c0=cutf/nyqf;
for(n=-5;n<6;n++)
{
if(n==0)
{
output = 0.5;
}
else
a = (n * PI)/2;
b = n * PI;
value = sin(a);
output = value/b;
final = 1 - output;
printf("\n The Fir High pass filter coefficient : %f",final);
}
}

## Result

Thus, the **FIR High pass filter** was implemented and displayed the results in console window.

## GENERATION OF SIGNALS

## CONTINUOUS TIME SIGNAL

## Aim

**To Generate a continuous sinusoidal time signals Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

### 1. OPEN MATLAB

### 2. File → New → Script.

- Type the program in untitled window

### 3. File → Save → type filename.m in matlab workspace path

4. Debug → Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

% here we generating the sine wave using sin function,
% The input frequency is 1 Khz
% Assuming The Sampling frequency is 5 Mhz
clear all;
Finput = 1000;
Fsampling = 5000000;
Tsampling = 1 / Fsampling;
Nsample = Fsampling/ Finput;
N = 0:5*Nsample-1;
x=sin(2 * pi * Finput * Tsampling * N);
plot(x);
title('Sine Wave Generation');
xlabel('Time -- >');
ylabel('Amplitude-- >');
grid on;

## Result

Thus the Signal was generated using MATLAB.

## DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL

## Aim

**To Generate a Discrete time Exponential signals Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

### 1. OPEN MATLAB

### 2. File → New → Script.

- Type the program in untitled window

### 3. File → Save → type filename.m in matlab workspace path

### 4. Debug → Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

% here we generating the exponential sequence using function,
% exp(X) returns the exponential for each element of X. exp operates
% element-wise on arrays.
clear all;
a = 0.5;
N = 10;
n = 0:N-1;
x = exp(a * n);
stem(x);
title('Exponential Signal');
xlabel('n value');
ylabel('Amplitude');

## Result

Thus the Discrete Time Signal was generated using MATLAB.

## CONVOLUTION

## LINEAR CONVOLUTION

## Aim

**To perform a Linear Convolution Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

### 1. OPEN MATLAB

### 2. File → New → Script.

- Type the program in untitled window

### 3. File → Save → type filename.m in matlab workspace path

### 4. Debug → Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

**Note:** Change the input through program in Xn and Hn.

## Program

clear all;
Xn = [1,1,1,1];
Hn = [1,1,1,1];
x=length(Xn);
h = length(Hn);
N = x + h - 1;
Yn = conv(Xn,Hn);
subplot(2,2,1);
stem(Xn);
title('Xn');
xlabel('Length of First Input Sequence');
ylabel('Input Value');
subplot(2,2,2);
stem(Hn);
title('Hn');
xlabel('Length of Second Input Sequence');
ylabel('Input Value');
subplot(2,2,3);
stem(Yn);
title('Yn');
xlabel('Length of Output Sequence');
ylabel('Output Value');

## Result

Thus the **Linear convolution** was performed using MATLAB.

## CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION

## Aim

To perform a **Circular Convolution Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

### 1. OPEN MATLAB

### 2. File → New → Script.

- Type the program in untitled window

### 3. File → Save → type filename.m in matlab workspace path

### 4. Debug → Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

**Note: ** Change the input through program in Xn and Hn.

## Program

clear all;
Xn = [1,1,1,1];
Hn = [1,1,1,1];
x=length(Xn);
h = length(Hn);
N = max(x,h);
Yn = cconv(Xn,Hn,N);
subplot(2,2,1);
stem(Xn);
title('Xn');
xlabel('Length of First Input Sequence');
ylabel('Input Value');
subplot(2,2,2);
stem(Hn);
title('Hn');
xlabel('Length of Second Input Sequence');
ylabel('Input Value');
subplot(2,2,3);
stem(Yn);
title('Yn');
xlabel('Length of Output Sequence');
ylabel('Output Value');

## SAMPLING AND EFFECT OF ALIASING

## Aim

To perform a Sampling and effect of aliasing Using MATLAB.

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File
**→** New **→** Script. -Type the program in untitled window
- File
**→** Save **→** type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug
**→** Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%To study sampling rate conversion using MATLAB
%In this program a 1000Hz signal and a 11000Hz signal are both sampled at
%10000Hz.But they have the same plot.Aliasing will result in a different signal than the one originally expected.
Fs = 10000; % Sampling Frequency
fIn = 1000; % Input Frequency
n = 0 : 100; % No.of Samples
k = 1;
xa = sin(2 * pi * (fIn / Fs) * n);
xb = sin(2 * pi * (fIn + (k * Fs))/ Fs * n);
subplot(2, 1, 1);
plot(n, xa);
title('1 Khz Sine Wave ');
subplot(2, 1, 2);
plot(n, xb);
title('11 Khz Sine Wave ');

## Result

Thus the Sampling was performed and studied the aliasing effect using MATLAB.

## DESING OF FIR FILTER

## FIR LOW PASS FILTER

## Aim

To perform a **FIR Low pass filter Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File New Script. -Type the program in untitled window
- File Save type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%Program – Hamming Window
%Low Pass Filter
clear all;
Fcut = 1000;
Fsamp = 7500;
N = 60; % Order of the filter
d=fdesign.lowpass('N,fc',N,Fcut,Fsamp);
Hd=window(d,'window',@hamming);
fvtool(Hd);

## Result

Thus the FIR Low pass was performed and displayed the graph in FVTOOL using MATLAB.

## FIR HIGH PASS FILTER

## Aim

To perform a **FIR High pass filter Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File
**→** New **→** Script. -Type the program in untitled window
- File
**→** Save **→** type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug
**→** Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%Program – Hamming Window
% High Pass Filter
clear all;
Fcut = 1000;
Fsamp = 7500;
N = 60; % Order of the filter
d= fdesign.highpass('N,fc',N,Fcut,Fsamp)
Hd=window(d,'window',@hamming);
fvtool(Hd);

## Result

Thus the **FIR High pass** was performed and displayed the graph in FVTOOL using MATLAB.

## DESING OF IIR FILTER

## IIR LOW PASS FILTER

## Aim

To perform a** IIR Low pass filter Using MATLAB.**

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File
**→** New **→** Script. -Type the program in untitled window
- File
**→** Save **→** type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug
**→** Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%Program - Butterworth Filter
%Low Pass Filter
rp = 3; % passband ripple
rs = 60; % stopband attenuation
fs = 20000; % sampling frequency
wp = 4200 / 10000;
ws = 5000 / 10000;
[n, wn] = buttord(wp, ws, rp, rs);
[b, a] = butter(n, wn,'low'); % Calculate filter coefficients
fvtool(b, a);

## Result

Thus the **IIR Low pass** was performed and displayed the graph in FVTOOL using MATLAB.

## IIR HIGH PASS FILTER

## Aim

To perform a **IIR High pass filter Using MATLAB**.

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File
**→** New **→** Script. - Type the program in untitled window
- File
**→** Save **→** type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug
**→** Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%Program - Butterworth Filter
%Low Pass Filter
rp = 3; % passband ripple
rs = 60; % stopband attenuation
fs = 20000; % sampling frequency
wp = 4200 / 10000;
ws = 5000 / 10000;
[n, wn] = buttord(wp, ws, rp, rs);
[b, a] = butter(n, wn,'low'); % Calculate filter coefficients
fvtool(b, a);

## Result

Thus the** IIR High pass** was performed and displayed the graph in FVTOOL using MATLAB.

## CALCULATION OF FFT

## Aim

To perform a **FFT Operation Using MATLAB**.

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File New Script. -Type the program in untitled window
- File Save type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%Y = fft(X) returns the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of vector X,
%computed with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm
clear all;
Xn = [1, 1, 1, 0];
N = length (Xn);
x = fft (Xn, N);
subplot(2,2,1);
stem(Xn);
title('Input sequence ');
xlabel('Length of Input Sequence');
ylabel('Input Values');
subplot(2,2,2);
stem(real(x));
title('Output real sequence ');
xlabel('Real Output Length');
ylabel('Real Values');
subplot(2,2,3);
stem(imag(x));
title('Output imag sequence ');
xlabel('Imag Output Length');
ylabel('Imag Values');

## Result

Thus the **FFT** of signal was performed and displayed the graph using MATLAB.

## DECIMATION BY POLYPHASE DECOMPOSITION

## Aim

To perform a Decimation Operation Using MATLAB.

## Requirements

Matlab 2007 later

## Procedure

- OPEN MATLAB
- File
**→** New **→** Script. - Type the program in untitled window
- File
**→** Save **→** type filename.m in matlab workspace path
- Debug
**→** Run. Wave will displayed at Figure dialog box.

## Program

%The input signal x[n] is a 1 kHz sinusoid sampled at 44.1 kHz.
N = 159;
Fs = 44.1e3;
n = 0:N-1;
x = sin(2*pi*n*1e3/Fs);
M = 3; % Decimation factor
h1 = mfilt.firdecim(M); % Default filter
% Display the output of the Direct-Form FIR Polyphase Decimator
%and overlay a shifted version of the original signal.
stem(tx,x,'k');
hold on;
stem(ty,y1,'filled');
axis([0 90 -Inf Inf]);
legend('Original signal','Decimated signal');
xlabel('Samples');
ylabel('Amplitude');

## Result

Thus the **Decimation** was performed and displayed the graph using MATLAB.