The objective of this project is to develop an intelligent low cost brain and eye controlled wheel chair with communication interface system,The Technology which is inspired from the technology which is used by Great scientist Stephen Hawking. Though he is completely paralyzed he can able to move his wheelchair by himself, he can able to type the letters. This technology is also made as that kind of facilities for paralyzed people with low cost. so that user can communicate by using eye blink detected from brain waves and same can be used control the wheel chair. To achieve maximum reliability and minimum cost, wireless connectivity is to be used as far as possible. Our model helps them to do all their basic needs from their wheelchair itself.
All applications are integrated in the wheelchair, application such as,
- They can drive their wheelchair by themselves using either meditation/attention or eye blink.
- Keypad for communication.
- Emergency commands for requesting their basic need such as food, water, restroom etc.
- Home automation for operating appliances.
Block diagram description
The above Block diagram explain you about the Brain actuated applciations for paralyzed people, That first we are extracting Brain waves from our brain, using Neurosky mindwave mobile/Brain sense. Then Brain waves gets processed using Matlab to analyze the brain waves and to extract the Blink waves. After Blink wave is classified it will send command to HC-05 for Hardware applications and for Software applications it is directly passed to matlab onscreen applications to controll applications. Then from HC-05 it is passed to the Microcontroller that is Arduino for Hardware applications such as Robotic car and Home automation.
Brain actuated applications
1.Wheel chair control
- They can be able to drive their wheel chair by their eye blink. So they need not any care taker to drive them, they can drive themselves.
- After selecting the Wheel chair application from Main control panel, wheel chair starts moving, then direction is chosen by eye blink.
- By observing the location of the “Blink to choose” image, direction can be chosen by having eye blink at certain direction.
- Wheel chair can be stopped by having large high intensity eye blink. So that wheelchair get stopped and display goes for “Main control panel”.
- Wheelcahir prototype is shown below
2.Blink talk using onscreen keypad
- Laptop is placed in wheelchair which has the keypad uses for communication by having Alphabetical keys, Space bar, Speak key and Delete key.The neurosky mindwave mobile measures intentionally directed EMG activity (blink strength), which in turn-become numeric values that ultimately manifest as communication from the user.
- Onscreen keyboard keys highlights are occurring repeatedly as loop, when it is supposed to detect the blink, the text gets selected ( Observe the sound occurred while blinking, to indicate that key is selected).
- First column of onscreen keyboard consists of numbers (1,2,3,4) which resembles row selection.
- Each and every key is selected by eye blink and gets printed in textbox on top of blink talk window.
- To close this application, we must do high intensity eye blink, It redirects to Main control panel
- In a upcoming model, it also reprogrammed to have the dictionary suggestion for each word that we typed.
- Once messages got typed in text box and by selecting speak key, messages present in text box is spoke out via speaker.
This application is mainly used for uneducated people and also used for requesting for emergency basic needs in their day-to-day life. Emergency commands such as
- Wash room
- Not feeling good
- Current need for the selection is identified by the position of “Blink to switch” image location.
- The commands that we select is Spoke out as a voice command via laptop speaker.
- As like as other application, to close the current application, high intensity blink should be made.
Commands which spoke out for every need can be reconfigurable
4.Home automation system
- Paralyzed people can able to control the home appliances such as Light, Fan, TV by using this application, from the wheel chair itself by using eye blink.
- By observing the current state of “Blink to switch image” in Home automation control panel, then each application can be selected using eye blink at certain appliance.
- It is also possible add some other applications, This is achieved by using relay for application switching by having input command from Arduino.
- It is visualised in laptop, by blinking at certain appliance that can be switched ON/OFF.
Blinkwave Extraction from Raw EEG Brain waves
- After extracting Raw EEG waves from the brain, signal processing takes place in Matlab to identify the Blink waves
- Normally Blink wave is in the form of sinusoidal wave form, among EEG waves.
- It is identified by measuring its amplitude on both onset and offset.
- Amplitude of the Blink wave is varied based on the blink strength (ex: By having strong eye blink, Blink waves has high amplitude)
- Normal eye blink is differentiated from voluntary eye blink by using its intensity of blink.
- Voluntary eye blink is used for all applications, and to close certain application either High intensity blink or abnormal distraction is used.
- Place AAA Batteries and switch on the Mindwave Mobile/ Brainsense.
- Observe Blue led blinking at Device
- Connect the Mind wave Mobile with laptop or Pc via Bluetooth (Default pairing key : 0000)
- Similarly connect HC-05 Module with the laptop at the same time.
- Before Running the program it is essential to change the com port number in the program.
- After connecting the Mindwave mobile/Brainsense to the laptop go for Bluetooth Settings -> more Bluetooth option -> COM port tab and observe the com port number which is “OUTGOING”.
- Com port selection is shown in Figure below
- Enter the Outgoing COM port number in the Matlab program, to receive packets through that comport
This COM Port has to be entered in the Matlab program as shown in Figure below (Here, COM number we have to choose is COM10)
In below figure change com port number 5 to 10.
In this system there are two hardware application, Wheelchair as Robotic car and Home automation system
Steps to configure hardware application
- Place the Arduino and Bluetooth module in the Robotic car
- Connect the respective pins to the relay for Home automation (Pin 2, 8 and 12) from arduino
- Connect the 9 v supply to arduino
- Connect Bluetooth module (HC-05) to the computer (Default pairing key : 1234)
Steps to be followed to work in the model
- Program the Arduino and Setup the hardware
- Connect Mindwave mobile and Bluetooth module to the laptop via Bluetooth
- Open Matlab and configure the COM port explained above
- Run the Matlab code at that time
- Main control panel wizard opens as shownbelow
- Observe the location of “BLINK TO SWITCH” image, and Make a Blink at appropriate location to choose an application
- Blink is identified by having “Blink detected” message at status bar and Beep once sound.
- Application wizard opens when it gets chosen
- To switch from one application to another, Make a high intensity blink
- After high intensity blink is made, again Main control panel wizard opens.
- Below figure shows abnormal eye blink
- Then application has been chosen again as before.
- In every application the status bar shows wheather blink is detected or not.
- “BLINK TO SWITCH” image moves linearly in every application, only blink should be made to choose certain application or command.
- Red grid in below Figure shows Blink wave in Home automation application panel among RAW EEG wave.
Likewise every application can be controlled using our Brain waves.
- Brain sense / Neurosky mindwave mobile
- HC-05 (Bluetooth Module)
- Robotic car setup
- Home Automation Kit
- Matlab (32-bit)
Project kit includes
- Brain Sense
- Robot | Home Automation Kit
- Bluetooth Module
- Source Code – Matlab | Arduino
- Paralyzed people can control every applications using their Brain from the place they are in.
- Main thing, that paralyzed people can switch over from one application to another application themselves by making High converged eye blink
- Complete standalone Mark1-prototype of Paralyzed people wheelchair inspired by Stephen Hawking's Wheelchair
- The Brain Computer Interface uses brain signal for all application, since Neurosky mindwavemobile/Brain sense uses AAA- battery and electrode is just placed in the scalp, it doesn’t make any harm to the brain.
- It can be pre-configured for every user to increase the accuracy of blink classification to use the application.
- It makes every paralyzed people to be independent in some applications
- It also makes them to express their feelings and sufferings.