The MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracking is an Algorithm to extract the Maximum Power from the Solar PV Panel when Panel Irradiation changes.
Generally the Solar Panels absorbs sunlight and generate electrical energy. which is also called solar irradiance. The irradiance unit is Watt per Square Meter (W/m2). this value will change with respect to sun light direction and Solar PV Panel Position. if Irradiance value maximum (ideal 1000W/m2) the Solar PV Panel output will be maximum. generally the irradiance will vary from 0-1000 W/m2. The Solar PV Panel output power is directly proportional to irradiance. the objective of MPPT is need to design one converter to extract the maximum power which is available at the solar PV Panel end.
Solar Panel Ratings
The Figure 1 shows that the 2 identical panel connected in parallel each panel is 250 Watts. the voltage is same as per the name plate ratings.
Figure 2 shows the solar PV panel ideal characteristics curve. if irradiance value is 1000W/m2 the maximum power is 426.3 Watts. when the irradiance value reduced to 500W/m2 the maximum power is 215.9676 Watts. again when the irradiance value is reduced to 100W/m2 the maximum power is 41.36Watts.
The Power electronics circuit called Boost Converter is employed to extract the maximum power from the Solar PV Panel. The Boost converter consist 1 no of Inductor and 1 no of Semiconductor switch.
The Figure 3 Shows that the Solar PV panel is connected with boost converter. the MOSFET is controlled by duty cycle which is decided by MPPT algorithm.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)-Flowchart
The Figure 6 shows that when irradiance changes ideally the converter tries to extract the maximum power from the solar PV Panel. when the user creates more accurate algorithm the converter will extract more power from the solar PV Panel.