Line Following Robot

Line Following robot

It is a robot that follows a line, either a black line on white surface or vise-versa. For Beginners it is usually their first robot to play with. In this tutorial, we will teach you to make the line follower robot move on the line with a type of feedback mechanism. It’s the most basic example of adding small intelligence to a robot, but it’s actually the designer’s intelligence!!

After reading this section completely you will be playing with the one shown below. Moreover we will make it modular so that it can be easily modified in future.


•A sensor to detect  the line on the surface. (It can be a simple IR  Reflectance Sensor or an  high end camera!). We will  use a simple IR based  sensor, it is cheap and  easy to build and use.  This article describe how  to make a line sensor  array.

•A microprocessor  to run the code that takes  inputs from the sensor and  control the motion of  robot. We will use a cheap  single chip computer  called an microcontroller  (MCU). A popular family of  microcontroller is 8051 series from Atmel. 8051  is chosen because it has  just the required amount  of resources and is very  low cost.

•The MCU cannot  drive the motors (used to  actually make the robot  run) directly, so a motor  driver is used. A motor  driver in our case is a  simple 16pin chip called  L293D. It can drive 2 DC  motors. We use a technique  called PWM to vary the  speed of motor digitally  from the MCU. The drive  mechanism is a  differential drive in  which we do not require to  turn the front wheel for  changing direction of  heading. Only two rear  powered wheel is enough  for motion and turning.  This is different from the  way cars and bikes are  turned, in these the front  wheel is turned to turn  the vehicle. More  information on  differential drive is give  in this article.

•Wheels that are  connected to motors shaft  the motor.

•Battery to power  the whole thing.

•A chassis to hold  everything.



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