A GRID INTERACTIVE PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVEN SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEM.

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A GRID INTERACTIVE PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
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A GRID INTERACTIVE PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVEN SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEM.
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A GRID INTERACTIVE PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DRIVEN SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEM.


OBJECTIVE:
To design and implement a Grid Interactive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Driven Solar Water Pumping System.

ABSTRACT:

Owing to the intermittency associated with solar (PV) system, the requirement of constant water supply is not possible with standalone system. In order to mitigate this, a grid intergraded WPS is proposed here. The grid integration enables the consumer an uninterrupted operation of water pump irrespective of solar insolation level. Moreover, the PV power can be fed to utility grid when water pumping is not required. To make it possible one voltage source converter (VSC) and one voltage source inverter (VSI) connected to a common DC link, are used for utility grid and PMSM control, respectively. The unit vector template theory is utilized to generate switching pulses for VSC to control the bidirectional power flow between the solar PV system and utility grid through the common DC link.

EXISTING SYSTEM:
  • In the field of solar water pumping number of papers has been proposed before, with respect to standalone solar system, grid connected solar system, in case of water  pumping motors.

  • One of the system is two stage topology, The conventional two stage topology has first stage to extract the maximum power and the second stage for maintaining the DC link voltage. However, a single stage topology is more effective as the first stage DC-DC converter is completely eliminated and thereby the losses associated with it are reduced. Topologies in standalone mode, suffer from the drawbacks of intermittent power supply as they are largely dependent on climatic conditions, which results in unreliable water pumping.

  • Problems due to the climatic condition affecting solar panel have been mitigated by deploying a battery energy storage system (BESS) at the DC link. The demerits associated with the battery viz. high system complexity, maintenance cost and short service life have bound the researchers to think of some other alternatives

  • Another approach is: Water can be stored in the storage tank when solar insolation is available and no water pumping is required. The stored water can be utilized when shutdown of entire WPS takes place due to unavailability of sunlight. However, the incorporation of storage tank requires larger space and would also increase the system cost.

  • Many attempts have been made to integrate utility grid to PV array. Few of them involve feeding the grid from a PV array first and then pouring power to operate the pump by grid. The system provides unidirectional power flow. Although it mitigates the intermittency issue, but the unidirectional topology is not capable of feeding the excess power to the grid when pumping is not required.

  • So that, A bidirectional topology is capable of providing the solution to this issue. Here a phase locked loop (PLL) based technique has been used for bidirectional power flow control of VSC, which increases the computational burden.

  • In the field of  motors: An electric motor drive is required for rotating the pump. Various electric drives have been used in past for water pumping application. The DC motors consists of brushes and commutator assembly, which increase the maintenance problem making AC motors more preferable over them

  • In case of sensor-controlled water pumping: A speed sensor-less scheme for such a system is much needed. Numerous techniques have been proposed in the literature for the estimation of rotor speed and position. Under practical condition when the motor is kept at a distance from the controller, as in case of submersible pumps where the motor is submerged in water and the controller is placed on the surface, the low voltage signal from encoder is distorted and the speed control would not be possible. rotor speed and position estimation technique is presented using an extended Kalman filter in digital form. A sliding mode (SM) observer based on sigmoid switching function is used for speed and rotor position estimation, where the SM gain is adjusted using fuzzy logic. Moreover, the arc-tangent is replaced with a PLL technique

  • Some techniques based on determination of back electromotive force (EMF), have been proposed in the literature. The proposed extended back EMF technique gives good performance with complex estimation equations. Although this technique gives good performance for low speed applications,

  • In another paper, A number of MPPT techniques such as perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (INC), neural network, fuzzy logic control (FLC), fractional open circuit voltage (Voc), fractional short circuit current (Isc) and many other methods have been discussed in the literature.

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

This paper presents a PMSM drive for WPS system integrated to the utility grid. The speed of the PMSM is controlled using field oriented control (FOC). MPPT of PV array is achieved by a well-known P&O algorithm using DC-DC boost converter. The smooth starting and wide range of speed control of PMSM, are achieved by sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) switching technique. The bidirectional power flow is enabled using unit vector template (UVT) theory. No speed and position sensors are used for the speed and the rotor position sensing and thus the proposed technique curtails the cost of the drive to high extent and also makes it feasible to operate for submersible pump. The proposed system is designed in such a way that the power flow is maintained at constant rate to the pump irrespective of the solar insolation level. It enables the power flow into the utility grid when the water pumping is not required and from the grid to PMSM driven pump when PV array delivers partial power or no power. The merit of proposed system is that it doesn’t involve any extra power electronic component to switch over the power source from PV array to the grid and vice-versa. The complete arrangement is auto-tuned. The proposed system is capable of keeping the grid current harmonics within permissible limit. The major contributions of the presented work are as follows.

  • The seamless operation of PMSM driven WPS is proposed for grid connected mode and standalone mode.

  • The proposed PMSM driven WPS is capable to feed generated solar PV array power to the grid, when water pumping is not required.

  • The sensor-less field-oriented control strategy is adopted for speed control of PMSM drive.

  • The proposed PMSM driven WPS is capable to operate under abnormal grid conditions such as voltage sag and voltage swell.

  • The unit vector theory is implemented to facilitate bidirectional power flow with the grid.

  • The grid power quality is improved by keeping the total harmonic distortions (THDs) of grid currents within 5 % as per the IEEE 519 standard.

 
REFERENCE:
  • Gilbert M. Masters, “Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems”, 2nd edition, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2013.

  • R. Foster, M. Ghassemi and M. Cota, “Solar energy: Renewable energy and the environment”, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Inc. 2010.

  • Vimal Chand Sontake and Vilas R. Kalamkar, “Solar photovoltaic water pumping system - A comprehensive review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 59, pp. 1038-1067, June 2016.

  • S.S. Chandel, M.N. Naik and R. Chandel, “Review of solar photovoltaic water pumping system technology for irrigation and community drinking water supplies,” Renewable and Sust. Energy Reviews, vol 49, 2015, pp. 1084-1099.

  • J.V. M. Caracas, G. D. C. Farias, L. F. M. Teixeira and L. A. D. S. Ribeiro, ‘Implementation of a High-Efficiency, High-Lifetime, and Low-Cost Converter for an Autonomous Photovoltaic Water Pumping System,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 631-641, Jan.-Feb. 2014.

  • R. Antonello, M. Carraro, A. Costabeber, F. Tinazzi and M. Zigliotto, “Energy-Efficient Autonomous Solar Water-Pumping System for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 43-51, Jan. 2017.
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